Belize, only 8,867 square miles in size, is situated on the northeast coast of Central America. The Caribbean Sea lies to the east and from the air its turquoise waters are clear, allowing the multicolored coral formation of the Great Barrier Reef to be easily observed. Coral islands called cayes, covered with stands of mangrove trees, dot the coast. Lying in aquamarine and jade-colored bays, these cayes protect the jungled coastline from the ravages of the sea.
North of Belize lies the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The Rio Hondo, which empties into Chetumal Bay, is the border between the two countries. The eastern border is demarcated by a surveyed line through the jungle separating Belize from the El Peten Department of Guatemala. To the south, the Belize/Guatemalan border is the Rio Sarstoon which flows east to the Caribbean Sea. The country is divided by the eastward flowing Belize River which is a major transportation route for native goods. The north half of the country is made up of synclinal folds of low lying, parallel limestone ridges running NNE to SSW. These jungle covered ridges are the spines of fossil coral reefs. In the valleys between run the perennial rivers, the Hondo, Nuevo, and Freshwater Creek. The Northern Peten and Campeche Regions of the Yucatan are drained by these river basins. This area, known as the "Maya Heartland," contains the classic Maya center of Tikal as well as many minor ceremonial centers and hundreds of occupation sites. The lagoons along the Nuevo River and Freshwater Creek are also areas of Maya site concentration. Great mangrove swamps line the northern coast, extend inland for many miles, and cover much of the northern district. For information on getting from Cancun to Corozal and Belize,
Southern Belize is the site of large plantations that grow citrus, an important export. Rising out of the palm-covered coastal plain of southern Belize are the Maya Mountains. Mostly unexplored, they are covered by verdant jungle and a canopy of tropical rain clouds. The paleozoic horst is comprised of granite and metamorphosed sandstone which sustains stands of pine in its infertile acidic soil. Unsuitable for agriculture, the ridge (note that in Belize, ridge refers to any change in vegetation) was exploited by Preceramic peoples and Maya hunters. Averaging approximately 1,000 feet, the main divide is relatively dwarfed by Victoria Peak which reaches 3,680 feet. The southern plateau becomes broader and descends westwardly. The northern part of this region, known as the Mountain Pine Ridge area, lies in the Capo District.
The higher elevation (1,500-2,700 feet) provides spectacular falls for the many streams that lace the land. The plateau's northern edge is a broken limestone escarpment descending steeply to the Sibun River Valley, an area dotted with many unexplored caves.
Belize (formerly British Honduras until the name of the country was changed in 1973) lies on the eastern or Caribbean coast of Central America, bounded on the north and part of the west by Mexico, and on the south and the remainder of the west by Guatemala. The inner coastal waters are shallow and are sheltered by a line of coral reefs, dotted with islets called cayes', extending almost the entire length of the country.
There is a low coastal plain, much of it covered with mangrove swamp, but the land rises gradually towards the interior.The Maya Mountains and the Cockscomb Range form the backbone of the southern half of the country, the highest point being Victoria Peak (3,669 feet) in the Cockscomb Range. The Cayo District in the west includes the Mountain Pine Ridge, ranging from 305 to around 914 metres above sea level. The northem districts contain considerable areas of low tableland. There are many rivers, some of them navigable for short distances by shallow-draught vessels. A large part of the mainland is forest.
By definition there is no true rainforest in Belize; however, the quantity of rainfall is only slightly insufficient. Instead, the country is decorated with broadleaf jungle and cohune forest termed "moist tropical forest". This forest, savanna wetlands and the Mayan Mountain areas of the country is habitat for an incredible variety of fauna.
The area of the mainland and cayes is 8,866 square miles. The country's greatest length from north to south is 280 kilometres and its greatest width is 109 kilometres.
The climate is sub-tropical, tempered by trade winds. Temperatures in coastal districts range from about 10*C (50*F) to about 35.6*C (96*F); inland the range is greater. Rainfall varies from an average of 1,295 millimetres in the north to 4,445 millimetres in the extreme south. The dry season usually extends from February to May and there is sometimes a dry spell in August.